Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively affected access to healthcare systems and treatment timelines. This study was designed to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: From January 2019 to December 2020, 489,001 patients from 1068 institutions were registered in the Japanese nationwide PCI (J-PCI) registry. We constructed generalized linear models to assess the difference in the daily number of patients and in-hospital outcomes between 2019 and 2020. Findings: In total, 207 institutions (19·3%) had closed or restricted access during the first COVID-19 outbreak in May 2020; the number of closed or restricted institutions had plateaued at a median of 121 institutions (11·3%). The daily case volume of PCI significantly decreased in 2020 (by 6·7% compared with that in 2019; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6·2–7·2%; p < 0·001). Marked differences in the presentation of PCI patients were observed; more patients presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (18·3% vs. 17·5%; p < 0·001), acute heart failure (4·49% vs. 4·30%; p = 0·001), cardiogenic shock (3·79% vs. 3·45%; p < 0·001), and cardiopulmonary arrest (2·12% vs. 2·00%; p = 0·002) in 2020. The excess adjusted in-hospital mortality rate in patients treated in 2020 relative to those treated in 2019 was significant (adjusted odds ratio, 1·054; 95% CI, 1·004–1·107; p = 0·03). Interpretation: While the number of patients who underwent PCI substantially decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, more patients presented with high-risk characteristics and were associated with significantly higher adjusted in-hospital mortality. Funding: The J-PCI registry is a registry led and supported by the Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics. The present study was supported by the Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health and Labour (No. 20IA2002 and 21FA1015), the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI; No. 21K08064), and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (No. 17ek0210097h000).
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