Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of cryoablation for lung tumors as well as the incidence of, and risk factors for, complications. Materials and Methods: This study included 193 cryoablation sessions for 396 lung tumors in 117 consecutive patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for common complications. Changes in laboratory values were analyzed the day after cryoablation. Results: Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and hemoptysis occurred after 119 (61.7%), 136 (70.5%), and 71 (36.8%) sessions, respectively. Phrenic nerve palsy, frostbite, and empyema occurred after one session each (0.52%). Proximal tumor implantation was observed in one of 471 punctures (0.20%). Of 119 sessions with pneumothorax, 21 (17.6%) required chest tube insertion and two (1.7%) required pleurodesis. Delayed and recurrent pneumothorax occurred in 15 of 193 sessions each (7.8%). A greater number of cryoprobes was a significant (P =.001) predictor of pneumothorax. Male sex (P =.047) and no history of ipsilateral surgery (P =.012) were predictors for the need for chest tube insertion, and no history of ipsilateral surgery (P =.021) was a predictor for delayed/recurrent pneumothorax. Greater number of cryoprobes (P =.001) and no history of ipsilateral surgery (P =.004) were predictors for pleural effusion. Greater number of cryoprobes (P <.001) and younger age (P =.034) were predictors for hemoptysis. Mean changes in white blood cell count, platelet count, hemoglobin level, and C-reactive protein level were 2,418/μL ± 2,260 (P <.001), -2.0 × 10 4/μL ± 3.2 (P <.001), -0.77 mg/dL ± 0.89 (P <.001), and 3.0 mg/dL ± 2.9 (P <.001), respectively. Conclusions: Percutaneous cryoablation could be performed minimally invasively with acceptable rates of complications.
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