Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. The current definition of peripartum cardiomyopathy only includes patients with systolic dysfunction. We describe a 25-year-old nulligravid patient with heart failure, i.e. left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic dysfunction during the third trimester of pregnancy. She complained of dyspnea and was referred to our hospital at 31 weeks of gestation. The patient met the clinical criteria for peripartum cardiomyopathy with the exception of systolic dysfunction. Brain-type natriuretic peptide levels peaked at 1447 pg/dL. The patient responded to therapy for heart failure and showed resolution of her diastolic dysfunction by 1 month postpartum. The case demonstrated the important role of diastolic dysfunction in peripartum heart failure and the possibility of clarifying the pathophysiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy by evaluating diastolic function. Further investigations are needed to provide evidence regarding the clinical role of diastolic dysfunction in peripartum heart failure.
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