We retrospectively analyzed the results of 707 adult patients who underwent myeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) (n = 365) and myeloablative bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (n = 342) for leukemia from HLA-identical sibling donors between 2000 and 2005 using the propensity score method. The results were obtained from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation registry. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that PBSCT was associated with lower overall survival (OS) in standard-risk patients [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.23; P = 0.036], but not in high-risk patients (aHR = 1.11; 95% CI 0.76-1.61; P = 0.599). Hematopoietic recovery was significantly faster after PBSCT. The risk of acquiring grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (aHR = 2.23; P = 0.040) and extensive chronic GVHD (aHR = 1.93; P = 0.001) were significantly higher after PBSCT. PBSCT was associated with higher non-relapse mortality in standard-risk patients (aHR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.08-4.88; P = 0.030), but not in high-risk patients (aHR = 1.29; 95% CI 0.65-2.54; P = 0.468). Relapse after transplantation did not differ between PBSCT and BMT either in standard-risk group or in high-risk group (aHR = 1.17; 95% CI 0.55-2.52; P = 0.684 and aHR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.52-1.28; P = 0.370, respectively). In this retrospective analysis, OS was significantly lower after PBSCT in standard-risk patients, but not in high-risk patients. PBSCT was associated with significant risks of grade III-IV acute GVHD and extensive chronic GVHD.
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