The allergic inflammatory effects of particulate matter (PM) 2.5, collected with the cyclone system in Yokohama city in Japan, were investigated in NC/Nga mice, which are hypersensitive to mite allergens. PM2.5 with alum was injected intraperitoneally for sensitization. Five days later, 200 μg of PM2.5 in 25 μL of saline was administered to mice intranasally five times for further sensitization. On the 11th day, PM2.5 was administered as a challenge. On the 12th day, mice were examined for airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, mRNA expression of Th1, Th2 cytokines, and metallothioneins in lung tissue, and histopathology. PM2.5 increased AHR, total cell numbers including eosinophils in BALF, and mRNA levels of IL-5, IL-22, eotaxin, eotaxin 2, and metallothionein 3. In PM2.5-induced lungs, inflammation was observed around the bronchus. These results demonstrate that PM2.5 alone, collected with the cyclone system in Yokohama city in Japan, induces asthma-like airway inflammation.
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