Numerous in vitro and in vivo animal studies using the (pro)renin receptor (P)RR blocker handle region peptide have suggested an important role of (P)RR in the pathogenesis of end-stage organ damage in patients with diabetes and hypertension. In addition, a limited number of clinical studies have suggested an association between (P)RR gene polymorphisms and blood pressure levels and between (P)RR mRNA levels and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA levels in human arteries. However, recent studies have shown that the (P)RR is divided into its soluble form and a residual hydrophobic part, which includes ATPase 6 associated protein 2, within cells. Therefore, the (P)RR may have a more complex function than previously thought. In addition, the physiological roles of the (P)RR remain undetermined, because the construction of (P)RR null mice has not been successful. As a next step for research in this area, a method for determining the soluble (P)RR levels in plasma and urine and the construction of tissue-specific (P)RR-knockout mice are needed to elucidate the roles of the (P)RR in physiology and pathophysiology.
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