Objectives This study aimed to analyze the perioperative stroke rate, stroke lesions, outcome, risk factors, and stroke prevention following debranching with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Design Retrospective study. Methods Between February 2011 and February 2015, 74 consecutive patients underwent debranching with TEVAR at our institution. Of these, the TEVAR proximal landing zone was “zone 0” in 23 patients, “zone 1” in 28, and “zone 2” in 23. Left subclavian artery (LSA) occlusion with coil embolization, balloon occlusion, or vascular plugging was performed in 27 patients. Mean follow-up time was 19.2 months (range 2–52 months). Results The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.1%. Stroke developed in 7 patients (9.5%), zone 0 in 4 patients, zone 1 in 2, and zone 2 in 1. Six of these patients had stroke lesions arising from the vertebral/basilar artery. Univariate analysis revealed a significant increase in the risk of postoperative stroke in patients with intraluminal atheroma (P = 0.001), those who underwent prior percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft (P = 0.002), and those with a long operative duration (P = 0.001). Additionally, LSA occlusion significantly decreased the incidence of stroke (P = 0.041). The postsurgical 1- and 2-year cumulative survival rates were 87.3% and 77.0%, respectively, in those without stroke, and 68.6% and 22.9%, respectively, in those with stroke (P = 0.012). Conclusions Stroke after debranching with TEVAR was associated with a high mortality. To prevent stroke, careful patient selection and protection of the vertebral artery are important. Prophylactic LSA occlusion at the time of stent-graft deployment might reduce the risk of perioperative stroke.
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