Background: The magnitude of renal function recovery after kidney donation differs in donors with a heterogeneous background. Preoperative assessment of candidates with potentially unfavorable renal functional compensation is critical when baseline kidney function is marginal. We explored the significance of preserved kidney volume (PKV) and known preoperative risk factors for the prediction of unfavorable renal function compensation. Methods: We enrolled 101 living donors for whom a 1-mm sliced enhanced computed tomography scan was performed preoperatively and clinical data could be collected up to 1 year after donation. The donors whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year after donation was 70% or higher of baseline eGFR were assigned to the "favorable renal compensation" group and the others to the "unfavorable renal compensation" group. Results: Age, sex, and preoperative serum uric acid level were not significant predictors for "unfavorable renal compensation." Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted PKV were independent preoperative risk factors for "unfavorable renal compensation" (adjusted odds ratio, 1.342 and 0.929, respectively). Hypertension and preoperative eGFR were not independent predictors when adjusted with BMI and BSA-adjusted PKV. Receiver operative characteristic analysis revealed that the predictive equation with the two independent predictors yielded a good accuracy to detect donor candidates with unfavorable renal functional compensation (area under the curve = 0.803), and the optimal cut-off values were identified as 23.4 kg/m 2 for BMI and 107.3 cm 3 /m 2 for BSA-adjusted PKV. Conclusions: BMI and BSA-adjusted PKV may be useful to select candidates with potentially unfavorable renal function compensation before kidney donation.
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