To implement precision oncology, analytical validity as well as clinical validity and utility are important. However, proficiency testing (PT) to assess validity has not yet been systematically performed in Japan. To investigate the quality of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms and cancer genome testing prevalent in laboratories, we performed pilot PT using patient samples. We prepared genomic DNA from the cancer tissue and peripheral blood of 5 cancer patients and distributed these to 15 laboratories. Most participating laboratories successfully identified the pathogenic variants, except for two closely located KRAS variants and 25 bp delins in EGFR. Conversely, the EGFR L858R variant was successfully identified, and the allele frequency was similar for all the laboratories. A high DNA integrity number led to excellent depth and reliable NGS results. By conducting this pilot study using patient samples, we were able to obtain a glimpse of the current status of cancer genome testing at participating laboratories. To enhance domestic cancer genome testing, it is important to conduct local PT and to involve the parties concerned as organizers and participants.
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