Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease in older individuals with a substantial rate of recurrence. The mechanism of CSDH recurrence remains unclear. This study aimed to detect imaging parameters that could indicate the risk for CSDH recurrence by using quantitative volumetric analysis and computed tomography (CT) texture analysis (CTTA). Clinical and imaging parameters were retrospectively investigated in 147 newly diagnosed CSDH lesions in 114 patients surgically treated at the Keio University Hospital during a 6-year period. For CT images, quantitative volumetric and texture analyses were performed. Hematoma volume, postoperative air volume, hematoma density, and texture parameters including kurtosis, skewness, and entropy were evaluated and compared with CSDH recurrence rate. Data were statistically evaluated, and a difference of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Reoperation for CSDH recurrence was required in 27 sides (18.4%) of 26 patients. Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative hematoma volume and postoperative hematoma density were independent risk factors for symptomatic CSDH recurrence that required reoperation. Postoperative hematoma volume, postoperative significant residual air, and postoperative hematoma density were also identified as independent risk factors for potential CSDH recurrence. Preoperative hematoma entropy was prone to be associated with both symptomatic and potential CSDH recurrence in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis because of confounding factors. Quantitative volumetric analysis and CTTA could aid in distinguishing individuals at risk for CSDH recurrence.
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