The promoter methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene has been described as the most important predictor of chemotherapeutic response and patients’ survival in glioblastomas (GBs). Therefore, prediction of the MGMT promoter methylation status by imaging would help to preoperatively decide the overall treatment strategy as well as surgical strategy. This study aimed to detect imaging parameters to predict MGMT promoter methylation in GBs by using a commercially available software. We investigated three imaging features (ring enhancement, tumor location, and laterality) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameters in 48 newly diagnosed GBs treated at Keio University Hospital in 2006 or later. For ADC, texture analyses were performed. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn manually with reference to contrast-enhanced areas, excluding necrotic and cystic regions. Mean ADC value and ADC histogram parameters, including kurtosis, skewness, and entropy, were compared with MGMT promoter methylation. Each parameter was evaluated to determine correlation with MGMT promoter methylation, and the parameters with significant associations with the methylation status were correlated with the MGMT-positive cell ratio determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The mean ADC value and ADC entropy were significantly associated with MGMT promoter methylation. The combination of mean ADC value and ADC entropy predicted MGMT promoter methylation, with a PPV of 81.2% and specificity of 88.9%. The mean ADC value and ADC entropy were negatively correlated with the MGMT-positive cell ratio in the IHC analysis. This study demonstrated that texture analyses of ADC histograms in GBs were predictive of MGMT promoter methylation.
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