Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is widely used; however, factors of high-cost care after PCI have not been thoroughly investigated. We sought to evaluate the in-hospital costs related to PCI and identify predictors of high costs. Methods We extracted 2,354 consecutive PCI cases (1,243 acute cases, 52.8%) from 3 Japanese cardiovascular centers from 2011 to 2015. In-hospital complications were predefined under consensus definitions (eg, acute kidney injury [AKI]). We extracted the facility cost data for each patient's resource under the universal Japanese insurance system. We classified the patients into total cost quartiles and identified predictors for the highest quartile (“high-cost” group). In addition, incremental costs for procedure-related complications were calculated. Results During the study period, a total of 401 cases (17.0%) experienced procedure-related complications. The in-hospital acute and elective PCI costs per case were US $14,840 (interquartile range [IQR] 11,370-20,070) and US $11,030 (IQR 8929-14,670), respectively. After adjusting for baseline differences, any of the procedure-related complications remained an independent predictor of high costs (acute: odds ratio 1.66, 95% CIs 1.13-2.43; elective: odds ratio 3.73, 95% CIs 1.96-7.11). Notably, incremental costs were mainly attributed to AKI, which accounted for 37.5% of all incremental costs; it increased by US $9,840 for each AKI event, and the total cost increase reached US $2,588,035. Conclusions Procedure-related complications, particularly postprocedural AKI, were associated with higher costs in PCI. Further studies are required to evaluate prospectively whether the preventive strategy with a personalized risk stratification for AKI could save costs.
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