Mammalian pluripotent stem cells are thought to exist in two states: naive and primed. Generally, unlike those in rodents, pluripotent stem cells in primates, including humans, are regarded as being in the primed pluripotent state. Recently, several groups reported the existence of naive pluripotent stem cells in humans. In this study, we report the conversion of primed state embryonic stem cells from common marmoset, a New World monkey, to the naive state using transgenes. The cells showed typical naive state features, including dome-like colony morphology, growth factor requirement, gene expression profile, X chromosome activation state, and energy metabolic status. Moreover, interspecies chimeric embryo formation ability with mouse embryos was increased in the naive state. This technique can be applied in basic medical research using nonhuman primates, such as preclinical use of naive pluripotent stem cells and generating genetically modified primates.
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