Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a typical side effect of antibiotic treatment, especially in children. Amoxicillin (AMPC) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMPC/CVA) are associated with high risk of AAD; however, these antibiotics are important in the pediatric field. Recent research suggests that probiotics prevent pediatric AAD, including that caused by AMPC and AMPC/CVA. Indeed, guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend the concomitant use of probiotics. However, the prescription status of probiotics for pediatric patients with otitis media receiving oral AMPC and AMPC/CVA remains unknown. We therefore conducted a survey to clarify the current status of these prescriptions and, in particular, to identify specific populations with a low proportion of probiotic prescriptions. Pediatric patients (≤15 years of age) newly prescribed oral AMPC or AMPC/CVA for otitis media between April 2016 and March 2017 were identified from a Japanese health insurance claims database. Eligible patients were divided into the AMPC (1303 patients) and AMPC/CVA (424 patients) groups, in which 659 (50.6%) and 293 (69.1%) patients were prescribed probiotics, respectively. Of the patients receiving probiotic prescriptions in the AMPC and AMPC/CVA groups, 632 (95.9%) and 286 (97.6%) patients received antibiotic-resistant probiotic prescriptions, respectively. When classified by the prescribing clinical department and patient age, the proportions of probiotic prescriptions in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics departments were lower than those in the Otorhinolaryngology department regardless of age. These results indicate the probability of insufficient probiotic prescriptions for pediatric patients with otitis media. Solving this issue may lead to the provision of safer antimicrobial therapy.
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