The emergence of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has revealed the potential for curing end-stage heart failure. Indeed, transplantation of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) may have applications as a replacement for heart transplantation and conventional regenerative therapies. However, there are several challenges that still must be overcome for clinical applications, including large-scale production of hiPSCs and hiPSC-CMs, elimination of residual hiPSCs, purification of hiPSC-CMs, maturation of hiPSC-CMs, efficient engraftment of transplanted hiPSC-CMs, development of an injection device, and avoidance of post-transplant arrhythmia and immunological rejection. Thus, we developed several technologies based on understanding of the metabolic profiles of hiPSCs and hiPSC derivatives. In this review, we outline how to overcome these hurdles to realize the transplantation of hiPSC-CMs in patients with heart failure and introduce cutting-edge findings and perspectives for future regenerative therapy.
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