Three types of 316L stainless steel surface with different topography were prepared by a Fine Particle Peening (FPP) treatment using titania, silica and alumina shot particles and analyzed the cell proliferation and cell-scaffold interaction. FPP-treated surface with titania and silica particles had micro asperities at low frequency. On the other hand, the alumina treated surface had micro asperities at high frequency. L929 fibroblasts were seeded on these specimens and then the number of cells was counted after 72 hours of culturing. The FPP-treated surfaces showed good cell proliferation comparing to polished surface. This indicates that micro asperities formed on the surface encourage cell adhesion. Cell adhesion behavior was evaluated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a fluorescence microscope. Dense filopodia were observed when cells cultured on the FPP-treated surface. This means that FPP treatment enhances cell adhesion and proliferation. The number of cells observed on the FPP-treated surface depended on the shape of asperities formed by FPP treatment; the highest cell counts were obtained on alumina treated surface. This is because cell migration was not inhibited by the shape of alumina treated surface asperities.
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