Objective: To determine whether carbapenem consumption and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance rates can be used as benchmarks to compare and improve antimicrobial stewardship programs across multiple pediatric hospitals.Design: A prospective study.Setting and participants: Healthcare institutions in Japan with >100 pediatric beds.Methods: An annual survey of the total days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days for carbapenem antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, panipenem-betamipron, doripenem) and susceptibility rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin from each institution was conducted over a 7-year period. Data were reported to the administration, as well as to the infection control team, of each institution annually.Results: Data were obtained from 32 facilities. The median total carbapenem DOT per 1,000 patient days was 16.6 and varied widely, with a range of 2.7 to 59.0. The median susceptibility to meropenem was 86.6%, ranging from 78.6% to 96.6%. We detected an inverse correlation between total carbapenem DOT versus susceptibility (r =-0.36; P <.01). Over the 7-year period, the DOT per 1,000 patient days of carbapenem decreased by 27% from a median of 16.0 to 11.7 (P <.01). We also observed an improvement in susceptibility to meropenem from a median of 87% to 89.7% (P =.01) and to imipenem-cilastatin from 79% to 85% (P <.01). The decreases in the use of carbapenem were greater in institutions with antimicrobial stewardship programs led by pediatric infectious disease specialists.Conclusions: Antimicrobial use and resistance, targeting carbapenems and P. aeruginosa, respectively, can serve as benchmarks that can be utilized to promote antimicrobial stewardship across pediatric healthcare institutions.
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