Context: The growing number of older people significantly affects end-of-life care. However, few studies have assessed the quality of end-of-life care among cancer patients with dementia. Objectives: To assess the quality of end-of-life care among non-small cell lung cancer patients with or without dementia using a nationwide inpatient database from Japan. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study that used a nationwide inpatient database of 366 acute care hospitals from April 2014 to November 2018. Poisson regression models were used where the quality indicator was the dependent variable, dementia status was the independent variable, and the age group and Charlson comorbidity index were covariates. Incidence proportion ratios (IPRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from the model. Results: The study population included 16,758 patients, of whom 4507 (26.9%) had dementia. The incidence proportion of opioid use (61.8% vs. 70.8%; IPR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.83–0.91), palliative care consultation (2.7% vs. 3.8%; IPR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58–0.88), mechanical ventilation (4.0% vs. 5.4%; IPR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62–0.87), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (2.2% vs. 2.8%; IPR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63–0.99) was significantly lower in patients with dementia than in those without dementia. Conclusion: Patients with dementia are less likely to receive end-of-life care. This study demonstrates the importance of providing high-quality end-of-life care regardless the cognitive status of patients with cancer.
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