The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has been facilitated by advancements in microelectronics and other micro technologies. The advantages of monitoring in the natural environment are that they more closely mimic the performance environment and thus can take into account environmental variables; and where used in competition, can monitor the athlete's performance under competitive stresses. Whilst it is a logical progression to take laboratory equipment and miniaturize it for the training and competition environment, it introduces a number of considerations that need to be addressed. This chapter introduces the use and application of inertial sensors as ideal candidates for the portable environment, describing the technical challenges of making the transition from the lab to the field, using a number of case studies as examples.
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