Localized amyloidosis is a rare condition, especially that involving the ureter. Because of its rarity and the difficulty in differentiating this condition from urothelial carcinoma by intravenous urography and computed tomography, nephroureterectomy has often been performed unnecessarily for this disease. The authors encountered two cases of this disease, both of which showed a negative urine cytology, no obvious mass effect, and a hypointensity on T2-weighted imaging. Because these findings are very rare in urothelial carcinoma, ureteroscopy-guided biopsy was performed, which yielded the diagnosis of amyloidosis. The patients were then treated and followed up at our institute. Primary localized amyloidosis of the ureter should be considered when evaluating ureteric lesions visualized as hypointensities on T2-weighted images that do not show an obvious mass effect, which could help in the avoidance of unnecessary surgery.
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