Introduction A better long-term quality of life after umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is observed compared with transplants from other alternative donors, whereas graft failure and relapses after CBT are still major issues. To minimise graft failure and relapse after CBT, intensification of conditioning by the addition of high-dose cytosine arabinoside (CA) and concomitant continuous use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are reported to convey a significantly better survival after CBT in some retrospective studies. To confirm the effect of G-CSF plus CA combination, in addition to the standard conditioning regimen, cyclophosphamide (CY)/total body irradiation (TBI), we design a randomised controlled study comparing CA/CY/TBI with versus without G-CSF priming (G-CSF combined conditioned cord blood transplantation [G-CONCORD] study). Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III study that aimed to compare G-CSF+CA/CY/TBI as a conditioning regimen for CBT with CA/CY/TBI. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, aged 16-55 years, are eligible. The target sample size is 160 and the registration period is 4 years. The primary endpoint is the 2-year disease-free survival rate after CBT. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse, non-relapse mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, engraftment rate, time to neutrophil recovery, short-term adverse events, incidence of infections and causes of death. This study employs a single one-to-one web-based randomisation between the with-G-CSF versus without-G-CSF groups after patient registration. Combination of high-dose CA and CY/TBI in both groups is used for conditioning. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the central review board, Nagoya University Certified Review Board, after the enforcement of the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The manuscripts presenting data from this study will be submitted for publication in quality peer-reviewed medical journals. Study findings will be disseminated via presentations at national/international conferences and peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration numbers UMIN000029947 and jRCTs041180059.
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