Purpose: Docetaxel is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) enzyme, and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) is correlated with neutropenia. We developed a novel method for estimating the interpatient variability of CYP3A4 activity by the urinary metabolite of exogenous cortisol (6-beta-hydroxycortisol [6-β-OHF]). This study was designed to assess whether the application of our method to individualized dosing could decrease pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) variability compared with body-surface area (BSA)-based dosing. Patients and Methods: Fifty-nine patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to either the BSA-based arm or individualized arm. In the BSA-based arm, 60 mg/m2 of docetaxel was administered. In the individualized arm, individualized doses of docetaxel were calculated from the estimated clearance (estimated clearance = 31.177 + [7.655 × 10-4 × total 6-β-OHF] - [4.02 × alpha-1 acid glycoprotein] - [0.172 × AST] - [0.125 × age]) and the target AUC of 2.66 mg/L · h. Results: In the individualized arm, individualized doses of docetaxel ranged from 37.4 to 76.4 mg/m2 (mean, 58.1 mg/m2). The mean AUC and standard deviation (SD) were 2.71 (range, 2.02 to 3.40 mg/L · h) and 0.40 mg/L · h in the BSA-based arm, and 2.64 (range, 2.15 to 3.07 mg/L · h) and 0.22 mg/L · h in the individualized arm, respectively. The SD of the AUC was significantly smaller in the individualized arm than in the BSA-based arm (P < .01). The percentage decrease in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) averaged 87.1% (range, 59.0 to 97.7%; SD, 8.7) in the BSA-based arm, and 87.4% (range, 78.0 to 97.2%; SD, 6.1) in the individualized arm, suggesting that the interpatient variability in percent decrease in ANC was slightly smaller in the individualized arm. Conclusion: The individualized dosing method based on the total amount of urinary 6-β-OHF after cortisol administration can decrease PK variability of docetaxel.
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