In vitro antibody-display technologies are powerful approaches for isolating monoclonal antibodies from recombinant antibody libraries. However, these display techniques require several rounds of affinity selection which is time-consuming. Here, we combined mRNA display with a microfluidic system for in vitro selection and evolution of antibodies and achieved ultrahigh enrichment efficiency of 106-to 108-fold per round. After only one or two rounds of selection, antibodies with high affinity and specificity were obtained from naïve and randomized single-chain Fv libraries of ∼1012 molecules. Furthermore, we confirmed that not only protein-protein (antigen-antibody) interactions, but also protein-DNA and protein-drug interactions were selected with ultrahigh efficiencies. This method will facilitate high-throughput preparation of antibodies and identification of protein interactions in proteomic and therapeutic fields.
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