Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator responsible for numerous physiological phenomena. Transient levels of NO in biological systems usually range from nanomolar to micromolar concentrations, with a rapid return to basal levels normally seen following these increases. Because NO can diffuse only over a local area in limited time due to such low levels of production and due to its short life-time prior to degradation, high spatial and temporal resolutions are required for direct and continuous NO measurement if the physiological role of NO is to be investigated in any system. For such purposes, analytical methods based on bio-imaging and electrochemical techniques for the measurement of NO are useful. In this paper, we describe the successful application of these methods to a number of biological systems. Specifically, complementary application of these methods demonstrate that it is possible to detect real-time NO production from nervous tissue with high spatial and temporal resolutions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas