Recently, several medical treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC) have been developed, including 5-aminosalicylic acids (5-ASAs), corticosteroids, thiopurine, calcineurin inhibitors, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α treatments. Treatment options including calcineurin inhibitors and anti-TNF treatment for refractory UC are discussed in this article. Furthermore, upcoming treatments are introduced, such as golimumab, vedolizumab, AJM300, tofacitinib. Budesonide foamwill be used as one treatment option in patients with distal colitis. Herbal medicine, such as Qing-Dai is also effective for active UC and may be useful for patients who are refractory to anti-TNFα treatments. In the near future, physicians will able to use many different treatments for UC patients. However, we should not forget 5-ASA and corticosteroids as the fundamental treatments for UC patients.
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