Introduction: Gliofibroma is a rare tumor that develops in the brain and spinal cord. Due to the rarity of its nature, its pathophysiology and appropriate treatment remain elusive. We report a case of intramedullary spinal cord gliofibroma that was surgically treated multiple times. This report is of great significance because this is the first case of recurrence of this tumor. Case presentation: A 32-year-old woman complained of gait disturbance and was referred to our institution. At the age of 13 years, she was diagnosed with intramedullary gliofibroma and underwent gross total resection (GTR) in another hospital. Based on imaging findings, tumor recurrence was suspected at the level of cervical spinal cord, and surgery was performed. However, the resection volume was limited to 50% because the boundary between the tumor and spinal cord tissue was unclear and intraoperative neuromonitoring alerted paralysis. At 1 year postoperatively, the second surgery was performed to try to resect the residual tumor, but subtotal resection was achieved at most. At 2 years after the final surgery, no tumor recurrence was observed, and neurologic function was maintained to gait with cane. Discussion: Although complete resection is desirable for this rare tumor at the initial surgery, there is a possibility to recur even after GTR with long-term follow-up. During surgical treatment for tumor recurrence, fair adhesion to the spinal cord is expected, and reoperation and/or adjuvant therapy might be considered in the future if the tumor regrows and triggers neurological deterioration.
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