A 54-year-old woman developed polymyositis 6 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myelogenous leukemia transformed from myelodysplasia. At the onset of myositis, the patient had oral dryness, and the histology of oral mucosa was compatible with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Muscle biopsy revealed focal muscle necrosis with massive lymphocytic infiltration. She was diagnosed with polymyositis, and the dose of cyclosporine was increased. Three months later, a complete resolution of myositis had been obtained, and the cyclosporine was tapered off. However, 51 months after the first episode of myositis, she again noted severe myalgia and was diagnosed with a recurrence of polymyositis based on high serum creatinine kinase (CK) and the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At that time, chronic GVHD in other organs was not present. She achieved a second remission of polymyositis with cyclosporine, and has remained in remission for 4 years. The pathogenesis of myositis can be attributed to the immunologic imbalance characteristic of the post-allogeneic BMT setting.
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