Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) has characteristic clinical features with organ-specific autoimmune polyendocrine diseases and candidiasis, caused by the mutations of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Although almost all patients are complicated with mucocutaneous candidiasis, no apparent susceptibility to other infections has yet been reported. We herein report that a patient with APECED suffered from recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection after severe primary herpetic stomatitis, associated with sequential HSV-1 isolates of the same genomic profile, consistent with endogeneous recurrence. Thus, not only candidiasis but also HSV infection should receive more attention in patients with APECED, with treatment being administered accordingly.
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