Background: We aimed to clarify the potential of spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to meet the increased demand for large-scale monitoring of forest resources. Results: We developed empirical models to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) and canopy height in Borneo from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data, and obtained root-mean-square errors of 38.7 Mg ha-1 and 4.0 m, respectively. GLAS-estimated AGB averaged 191.8 Mg ha-1. From 2004 to 2007, AGB decreased by an average of 33.1 Mg ha-1, and the rate of forest loss was 2.4% year-1. The total AGB in Borneo was estimated as 10.34 Gt. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential of spaceborne LiDAR for monitoring forest resources, and its potential to play an important role in REDD+ implementations.
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