Purpose This study was conducted with infants diagnosed with bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) and their mothers. It explored characteristics of the mother-infant interaction, the infants’ developmental characteristics and related risk factors. Method Cross-sectional statistical analysis was performed with 18 dyads of one-year-old infants with bilateral RB and their mothers. Results Using the Japanese Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (JNCATS) results showed that infants with RB had significantly lower scores compared to normative Japanese scores on all of the infants’ subscales and “Child's contingency” (p < 0.01). Five infants with visual impairment at high risk of developmental problems had a pass rate of 0% on six JNCATS items. There were positive correlations between Developmental quotients (DQ) and JNCATS score of “Responsiveness to caregiver” (ρ = 0.50, p < 0.05) and DQ and “Child's contingency” (ρ = 0.47, p < 0.05). Conclusions Infants with visual impairment were characterized by high likelihood of developmental delays and problematic behaviors; they tended not to turn their face or eyes toward their mothers, smile in response to their mothers’ talking to them or the latter's changing body language or facial expressions, or react in a contingent manner in their interactions. These infant behaviors noted by their mothers shared similarities with developmental characteristics of children with visual impairments. These findings indicated a need to provide support promoting mother-infant interactions consistent with the developmental characteristics of RB infants with visual impairment.
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