The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dry eye disease (DED) and myopia by evaluating higher order aberrations (HOAs) and choroidal thickness (CT). We recruited 72 myopic children with DED symptoms (mean age 12.8 years), measured the tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal/intraocular/total ocular HOAs, CT, and axial length (AL), administered lifestyle questionnaires, and evaluated the relationships among TBUT, HOAs, CT, and AL. The TBUT was correlated significantly with the corneal HOAs and intraocular HOAs but not with the total ocular HOAs. Multiple regression analyses showed that the AL was associated significantly with the TBUT (β = − 0.067, P = 0.004), the intraocular HOAs, and total ocular HOAs but not with the corneal HOAs. The CT was associated significantly with the TBUT and AL (β = 9.15 and − 7.85, respectively; P < 0.001 and = 0.01, respectively). Our data suggested the association between DED and myopia might be independent of the HOAs. We showed that the TBUT was associated with the CT, which is related to the AL. Because the parasympathetic nervous system affects the lacrimal glands and CT, the parasympathetic nervous system might be a common upstream factor in the association between DED and myopia.
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