Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between ischaemic symptoms during the early postoperative period in patients with moyamoya disease and changes in the cerebellar asymmetry index (AI), a parameter used to quantitatively identify crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Patients and methods: We analysed the data of 18 patients with moyamoya disease who underwent quantitative IMP-cerebral blood flow SPECT at least once during the follow-up period. Cerebellar AI scores were calculated using the CBF of the cerebellum calculated automatically from multiple slices of SPECT images with automated ROI setup software and categorized and statistically examined according to the presence or absence of ischaemic symptoms. Results: The cerebellar AI calculated from SPECT performed in the patients who presented with ischaemic symptoms was 0.094 ± 0.023 (mean ± SD), which was significantly elevated compared to the value of 0.013 ± 0.025 (mean ± SD) calculated from SPECT performed when the patients did not present with ischaemic symptoms (p < 0.0001). Limiting the time of SPECT to calculate the cerebellar AI to be compared to the acute phase within 2 weeks after surgery did not change this trend, and again, the cerebellar AI was statistically significantly elevated in the presence of ischaemic symptoms (0.094 ± 0.023 (mean ± SD)) compared to the AI in the absence of ischaemic symptoms (0.000081 ± 0.026 (mean ± SD)) (p = 0.0003). In patients who underwent quantitative SPECT in the acute phase during the first postoperative week, the cerebellar AI values calculated from the results of SPECT performed during the preoperative period as well as multiple times during postoperative period were followed over time in each case. The cerebellar AI increased in patients who presented with symptoms of ischaemia postoperatively but then tended to decrease reversibly and approach zero with the disappearance of symptoms of ischaemia. Conclusions: Since the cerebellar AI reflects the symptom of ischaemia in patients with moyamoya disease, especially in the early stage after revascularization surgery, and is a parameter that improves with symptom improvement, it seems to be useful for understanding the state of cerebral blood flow after bypass surgery in patients with moyamoya disease.
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