Background: Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a well-known marker of proximal tubular impairment. We evaluated the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and levels of L-FABP in a cross-sectional community-based study. Participants with normoalbuminuria and normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), that is, non-chronic kidney disease (non-CKD), were enrolled in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the association between CVD risk factors and a proximal tubular marker in the Japanese general population with normoalbuminuria and normal eGFR. Methods: The present study is part of the Sasayama study. The participants included 1000 community residents (447 men and 553 women) aged 40–64 years without a history of CVD or renal dysfunction. Out of these participants 375 men and 477 women, defined as non-CKD, were included for further analysis. In each sex, the highest quintile group was considered to have high-normal L-FABP levels. A multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors for CVD and high-normal L-FABP levels in the non-CKD participants. We performed a similar analysis using the high-normal urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) as a dependent variable instead of L-FABP. Results: Among the non-CKD participants, in the highest quintile group (Q5, top 20%), L-FABP was ≥2.17 μg/gCre in men and ≥ 2.83 μg/gCre in women. In women, the multivariate odds ratio was 3.62 (1.45–9.00) for high-normal L-FABP in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with that in the group without DM. However, the relationship between DM and the UACR level was not significant. In men, DM was significantly associated with high-normal UACR. However, the relationship with L-FABP levels was not significant. Conclusions: The presence of DM was more strongly related to high-normal L-FABP levels than to high-normal UACR in women even at the stage of normoalbuminuria and normal eGFR. Our results were also consistent with the findings of a previous study where women were more prone to nonalbuminuric renal impairment compared to men, although further studies are required to confirm the results.
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