Several studies have reported a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of alcohol consumption with established CHD risk factors and with macro-/micro-nutrient intake among Japanese people. Participants were 1,090 Japanese men and women aged 40–59 y enrolled in the INTERLIPID study, excluding former drinkers. Based on two 7-d alcohol records, participants were classified as non-drinkers (0 g/wk), light-drinkers (<100 g/wk), moder-ate-drinkers (100–299 g/wk), or heavy-drinkers (≥300 g/wk). Detailed macro-/micro-nu-trient intake was evaluated using four in-depth 24-h dietary recalls and adjusted for total energy intake excluding alcohol. We analyzed the associations of CHD risk factors and nutrient intake with alcohol consumption. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure were higher and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower among those with higher alcohol consumption. J-shaped relationships with alcohol consumption were observed for the proportion of current smokers, number of cigarettes smoked, and prevalence of hypertension; these risk factors were lowest among light-drinkers. Carbohydrate and total fiber intakes were lower and protein and dietary cholesterol intakes were higher among those with higher alcohol consumption. These associations were similar for men and women. Alcohol consumption was related to nutrient intake as well as established CHD risk factors. Non-drinkers were higher on some CHD risk factors than were light-drinkers. These findings may influence the J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CHD risk.
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