Migration of neutrophils (PMN) across epithelia is a pathological hallmark of numerous mucosal diseases. Whereas lesions at mucosal surfaces are generally self-limiting, endogenous mechanisms of resolution are incompletely understood. Previous studies revealed that resolvins directly act on PMN to attenuate transendothelial migration, less is known about the influence of resolvins on PMN-epithelial interactions and whether they act on epithelia. We studied the dynamics of resolvin E1 (RvE1) actions on leukocyte transepithelial migration. PMN exposure to RvE1 or chemerin (peptide agonist of ChemR23) reduced transepithelial migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, activation of epithelial ChemR23 promoted apical clearance of PMN. A nonbiased screen of known PMN ligands expressed on epithelial cells in response to RvE1 revealed selective induction of CD55, an apically expressed antiadhesive molecule. CD55 promoter analysis demonstrated that both RvE1 and chemerin activate the CD55 promoter. Inhibition of CD55 by neutralizing antibody prevented RvE1-dependent augmentation of apical PMN clearance. Taken together these findings implicate a "two-hit" model of inflammatory resolution, whereby activation of the PMN RvE1 receptor attenuates transepithelial migration and subsequent actions on the epithelium promote CD55-dependent clearance of PMN across the epithelial cell surface promoting active inflammatory resolution.
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