Background & aim: Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at risk for metabolic bone disease, studies analyzing this correlation have identified various risk factors, including disease phenotype, age, sex and steroid therapy. Furthermore, few studies have assessed risk factors for bone loss in Japanese IBD patients. This study analyzed risk factors for metabolic bone disease in Japanese IBD patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 388 patients with IBD aged 20-50 years, including 232 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 156 with Crohn's disease (CD). Bone mineral density of the femoral neck, total femur and lumbar spine was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The blood concentrations of bone metabolism markers were measured. History of smoking and bone fracture, and nutritional intake were assessed using questionnaires. Results: Of the 388 patients with IBD, 78 (20.1%; UC, 17.2%; CD, 24.4%) had osteopenia and 17 (4.4%; UC, 3.4%; CD, 5.8%) had osteoporosis, as assessed by T-score. Bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae was lower in males than in females. Multivariate regression analysis showed that risk factors for bone loss in UC patients were male sex, low body mass index (BMI), high steroid dose and disease location. Risk factors for bone loss in CD patients were male sex and low BMI. Conclusion: Among Japanese patients with IBD, male sex and low BMI were associated with increased risk for metabolic bone disease. In addition, Steroid therapy shouldn't be indiscriminate in UC patients. These findings may help identify patients at particularly high risk of metabolic bone disease and may help implement appropriate therapies in a timely manner and improve long-term quality of life.
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