Objective. The aim was to elucidate the prognosis and risk factors associated with relapse during longterm remission maintenance therapy for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Methods. Patients with newly diagnosed AAV (n = 156) were registered in the Remission Induction Therapy in Japanese patients with ANCA-associated Vasculitides (RemIT-JAV) study, and among them, 83 patients who achieved remission were enrolled and followed up for 24 additional months in our nationwide, prospective cohort study (Co-RemIT-JAV; registration number UMIN 000006373). Patterns of maintenance therapy, effectiveness, and safety were evaluated from months 25 to 48 after the RemIT-JAV. The primary outcome measure was the rate of relapse. Secondary outcome measures included overall and renal survival, risk factors associated with relapse, and incidence rates of serious infections. Results. The patients comprised 35 men and 48 women aged 65.3 ± 12.6 years. Between months 25 and 48, the survival rate was 95% (79/83). Causes of death included 1 thyroid cancer, 1 infection, and 2 unknown reasons. Four patients had developed endstage renal disease (ESRD) by Month 24; 1 developed ESRD beyond Month 25. The relapse rate was 24% (20/83) from months 25 to 48. Multivariable analysis revealed that oral prednisolone ≤ 2.5 mg/day at Month 24 was a significant risk factor for relapse between months 25 and 48 (HR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.5). Conclusion. One-quarter of patients with AAV relapsed during maintenance therapy, and relapse was associated with the dose of oral prednisolone 24 months after the initiation of remission induction therapy in Japan.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy