Aim: Appendicitis is divided into two categories: complicated appendicitis (CA) and uncomplicated appendicitis (UA). In pediatric patients with CA, the use of interval appendectomy (IA), which is non-operative management followed by elective surgery, has decreased the number of postoperative complications. Before discussing the merit of IA for adult patients, we need to clarify whether the frequency and seriousness of the complication rate after emergency surgery is higher for CA than for UA. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients who underwent appendectomy and who were registered in the National Clinical Database (NCD) from 2014 to 2016. Patients with CA who underwent emergency appendectomy comprised the CA group. Patients with UA comprised the UA group. Patients with chronic or recurrent appendicitis who underwent elective appendectomy comprised the elective appendectomy (EA) group. Primary outcomes were all morbidity, serious morbidity, and mortality within 30 days after appendectomy. Results: We included 109 256 patients in the study: 14 798 CA, 86 876 UA, and 7582 EA patients. Compared with the UA group, the rates of all morbidity, serious morbidity, and mortality were significantly higher in the CA group. All morbidity, serious morbidity, and mortality rates were significantly lower in the EA group than in the other two groups. Conclusions: We confirmed that emergency surgery for CA places the patient at relatively higher risk. We also showed that the risk associated with EA is significantly lower than that for the other methods.
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