Oesophageal cancer is a dismal disease since it metastasizes widely even from an early stage. In order to improve treatment outcomes, multidisciplinary treatments including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been developed. While oesophagectomy is the mainstay in the treatment strategy, it is highly invasive since it requires two to three field approaches. To reduce surgical stress and morbidity, minimally invasive oesophagectomy including thoracoscopy, robotic assisted surgery and mediastinoscopy were introduced. Various clinical trials proved that these techniques decrease the post-operative morbidity rate. Furthermore, with the advancement of multidisciplinary treatment with a higher response rate, the possibility arose for omission of surgical resection in remarkable responders to neoadjuvant therapy. However, in order to safely provide organ preservation without increasing the risk of post-treatment recurrence, an accurate tumour monitoring system is required. Although endoscopy and computed tomography imaging have been a standard, the detection rate of residual tumours after treatment is still unsatisfactory. Utilizing liquid biopsy which could evaluate tumour derivative and host response, an appropriate monitoring system of tumour burden during multidisciplinary treatment can be developed. With the advancement of minimally invasive surgery and multidisciplinary treatment, the treatment strategy needs to be highly individualized based on the tumour biology, patients' condition and their preferences. Along with the improvement of the tumour monitoring system, appropriate role sharing can be achieved between a minimally invasive surgery and the organ preservation approach.
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