Objective:To investigate the frequency of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) nationwide in Japan.Background:LLR was initially limited to basic liver resection, but is becoming more common in advanced liver resection.Methods:Retrospective observational study of 148,507 patients registered in the National Clinical Database 2011-2017. Excluded: liver resection with biliary and vascular reconstruction.Results:LLR or open liver resection (OLR) was performed in 1848 (9.9%) and 16,888 (90.1%) patients, respectively, in 2011, whereas in 2017, LLR had increased to 24.8% and OLR decreased to 75.2% of resections (5648 and 17,099 patients, respectively). There was an annual increasing trend of LLR, starting at 9.9%, then 13.8%, 17.3%, 21.2%, 18.1%, 21.0%, and finally 24.8% in 2017. Basic LLR became more common, up to 30.8% of LR in 2017. Advanced LLR increased from 3.3% of all resections in 2011 to 10.8% in 2017. Throughout the years observed, there were fewer complications in LLR than OLR. Operative mortality was 3.6% for both advanced LLR and OLR in 2011, and decreased to 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively, in 2017. Mortality for both basic LLR and basic OLR were low and did not change throughout the study, at 0.5% and 1.6%, respectively, in 2011 and 0.5% and 1.1%, in 2017.Conclusions:LLR has rapidly become widespread in Japan. Basic LLR is now a standard option, and advanced LLR, while not as common yet, has been increasing year by year. LLR has been safely developed with low mortality and complications rate relative to OLR.
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