Background and Aim: We retrospectively determined the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic delivery (ED) of capsule endoscopes. Methods: We enrolled 10,156 patients who underwent small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE), 3182 who underwent patency capsule (PC), and 1367 who underwent colon capsule endoscopy (CCE), at 11 gastroenterological and nine pediatric centers. Results: Small bowel capsule endoscopies, PCs, and CCEs were endoscopically delivered to 546 (5.4%), 214 (6.7%), and 14 (1.0%) patients, respectively. Only mild complications occurred for 21.6% (167/774), including uneventful mucosal damage, bleeding, and abdominal pain. Successful ED of SBCE to the duodenum or jejunum occurred in 91.8% and 90.7% of patients aged <16 years and ≥16 years, respectively (P = 0.6661), but the total enteroscopy rate was higher in the first group (91.7%) than in the second (76.2%, P < 0.0001), for whom impossible ingestion (87.3%) was significantly more common than prolonged lodging in the stomach (64.2%, P = 0.0010). Successful PC and CCE delivery to the duodenum occurred in 84.1% and 28.6%, thereafter the patency confirmation rate and total colonoscopy rate was 100% and 61.5%, respectively. The height, weight, and age cutoff points in predicting spontaneous ingestion were 132 cm, 24.8 kg, and 9 years 2 months, respectively, in patients aged <16 years. Patients aged ≥16 years could not swallow the SBCEs mainly due to dysphagia (75.0%); those who retained it in the esophagus due to cardiac disease (28.6%), etc. and in the stomach due to diabetes mellitus (15.7%), etc. Conclusions: This large-scale study supports the safety and efficacy of ED in adult and pediatric patients. UMIN000042020.
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