Study Design Retrospective case series of surgically treated adolescent scoliosis patients. Objectives To assess the radiographic changes of cervical kyphosis and identify the possible factors affecting postoperative sagittal cervical kyphosis in surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Summary of Background Data Cervical kyphosis is a well-recognized phenomenon in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite recent reports, the prevalence, radiographic changes, and possible factors affecting postoperative sagittal cervical kyphosis are controversial. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of a single-center database was performed on 133 consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with long instrumented (more than 5 levels) spine fusion (minimum, 2 years; mean, 3.3 years; range, 2 to 5.5 years). A total of 89 patients met all of the inclusion criteria. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic measurements and patient demographics were investigated. Results Postoperative cervical kyphosis was observed in 46 patients. Cobb angle decreased from 48.1 ± 13.1 to 15.4 ± 11.1 at the final follow-up. Cervical kyphosis significantly decreased from 5.5 ± 8.9 preoperatively to -1.5 ± 8.9 at the final follow-up. No difference was observed for T2-T5, T5-T12, lumbar lordosis, sacral slope, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and sagittal vertical axis during the follow-up. Notably, T2 sagittal tilt was significantly increased from preoperatively to the final follow-up. Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a strong correlation between postoperative cervical lordosis and T2 sagittal tilt (r = 0.73; p <.001). Conclusions Despite the significant increase of cervical lordosis, 85% of patients still have a kyphotic or less lordotic cervical spine. The strong positive association between cervical lordosis and T2 sagittal tilt suggests that the sagittal cervical alignment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients is closely related to the global sagittal spine balance rather than thoracic kyphosis.
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