Basic research on human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) for cardiac regenerative therapy is one of the most active and complex fields to achieve this alternative to heart transplantation and requires the integration of medicine, science, and engineering. Mortality in patients with heart failure remains high worldwide. Although heart transplantation is the sole strategy for treating severe heart failure, the number of donors is limited. Therefore, hPSC-derived CM (hPSC-CM) transplantation is expected to replace heart transplantation. To achieve this goal, for basic research, various issues should be considered, including how to induce hPSC proliferation efficiently for cardiac differentiation, induce hPSC-CMs, eliminate residual undifferentiated hPSCs and non-CMs, and assess for the presence of residual undifferentiated hPSCs in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the current stage of resolving these issues and future directions for realizing hPSC-based cardiac regenerative therapy.
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