Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between overall survival (OS) and other clinical outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. Further, we conducted subgroup analysis in the correlation of OS. Aim: This study intended to investigate potential surrogate endpoints of OS for prostate cancer by examining the correlation between OS and the other endpoints. Methods: We performed a systematic review through a literature search by computer-based searches of the Medline database (January 1965 and May 2014). Results: The contents of 115 studies with endpoint as OS were analyzed in our study. Our results showed that 47.8% (55/115) of the studies used progression-free survival as an endpoint besides OS, followed by time to progression (43.5% [50/115]) and PSA response (40.9% [47/115]). Also, the relationship between OS and each surrogate endpoint was examined using the hazard ratio (HR) by a Bayesian hybrid model for random effect multivariate meta-analysis. Our results showed that the endpoint that had the highest correlation with OS was progression-free survival (PFS) with an estimated marginal correlation of 0.939 (95%CI: 0.900, 0.967). Furthermore, our stratified analysis identified PFS in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients (0.937), in sensitive patients (0.932), in none of chemotherapy patients (0.929), in first line of the chemotherapy (0.948), in patients who received no Docetaxel previously (0.942), in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (0.950), in patients who received only chemotherapy (0.956), and in phase III (0.960), time to progression (TTP) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients (0.942), in metastasis patients (0.948), in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (0.953), in patients who received only chemotherapy (0.938), and in Phase III (0.927) as endpoints, which showed a lower limit for 95% CI of estimated marginal correlation ≥0.850 with overall survival. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PFS is a potential surrogate endpoint of OS in clinical trials for patients with prostate cancer. It also suggests potential surrogate endpoints for CRPC and locally advanced prostate cancer.
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