Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important infectious complication of hematological disorders, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Evidences suggest seasonal and/or geographical variations in the airborne fungal counts and a relationship between those counts and the incidence of IFD. We evaluated the concentrations of indoor airborne fungi quantitated over the course of one year in a hematology ward in Japan. In January, April, July, and October, fixed volumes of air samples were obtained by an air sampler in a hematology ward not equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air filter and incubated in fugal cultures. Samples were also obtained from a protective environment in the same ward and were evaluated. The number of fungal colonies per 50 L of sampled air was highest in October (median 2.25 (range, 0.2–7.0)), which was significantly higher than those in the other three months (0.1 (range, 0–1.0) in January; 0 (0-0) in April; 0.55 (0–2.5) in July; P < 0.01)). Commonly identified pathogens included Penicillium and Cladosrporium species, but Aspergillus species was detected only in July and October samples. These results suggest a seasonal variation in indoor airborne fungal concentrations in Japan, which could affect the epidemiology of IFD.
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