Background: Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff is a disorder that causes acute onset of shoulder pain when spontaneous resorption of the calcification occurs. However, factors that trigger calcium resorption have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the onset of calcium resorption in calcific tendinitis and the season of onset. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 195 patients (female, 116; male, 79; mean age, 62.6 ± 14.2 years; median age, 62 [52, 73] years) diagnosed with the postcalcification stage of calcific tendinitis, which was defined as acute calcific tendinitis in this study, between 2006 and 2018. The onset date of acute calcific tendinitis for each patient was collected from clinical notes. We evaluated the incidence of acute calcific tendinitis in each season and month. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the incidence of acute calcific tendinitis and the mean monthly temperature or humidity levels for each year. Results: The most common season of acute calcific tendinitis onset was summer (35.4%), followed by spring (24.6%), autumn (24.1%), and winter (15.9%) (P = 0.002). Monthly analyses showed the highest peak of onset was in July (15.4%) and the lowest peak was in February (3.1%) (P = 0.022). The incidence of acute calcific tendinitis had a weak association with mean monthly temperature (R2 = 0.066; P = 0.001) but was not associated with mean monthly humidity levels (R2 = 0.018; P = 0.099). Conclusions: This study provides new information on seasonal variation of acute calcific tendinitis onset. The results of this study indicated that the onset of calcium resorption occurs most frequently in the summer in Japan; however, the reasons for seasonal variation remain unclear, and further studies will be needed. Level of evidence: Level III.
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