Background. This study was conducted to assess serial changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) within the first 12 months after iodine-125 (I-125) prostate brachytherapy. Methods. Between September 2003 and June 2004, a group of 103 patients with localized prostate cancer was treated with I-125 prostate brachytherapy, either alone (monotherapy; 60 patients) or in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (combined therapy; 43 patients). The IPSS was obtained at preimplant, and at 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The minimum IPSS follow-up for this study was 12 months. Dosimetry was based on computed tomography (CT) scan 1 month postimplant. Clinical, treatment-related, and dosimetric factors were assessed for correlations with the maximum IPSS increase (the peak IPSS minus the preimplant IPSS). Results. The median preimplant IPSS was 7.0, with a median peak of 16 at 1 month. The IPSS returned to baseline in 42 patients (40.8%) and it returned to within 3 points of the baseline in 64 (62.1%) at 1-year follow-up. On univariate and multivariate analyses, the maximum IPSS increase was best predicted by lower preimplant IPSS, in both the monotherapy and combined therapy groups. Conclusion. In our series, IPSS after prostate brachytherapy peaked at 1 month and gradually returned to approximately baseline at 12 months.
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