The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of sex and cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) variant on the blood concentration of tacrolimus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. The blood concentration of tacrolimus (ng/mL) divided by the daily dose of tacrolimus (mg/day) and the patient’s weight (kg) (C/D) was obtained from 55 patients. The C/D value was analysed according to genetic variation in CYP3A5 or ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), sex, and age. The C/D value in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group was significantly higher than in the CYP3A5*1/*1 and *1/*3 groups (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.40). In the CYP3A5*3/*3 group, the concentration of tacrolimus was significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.78). Furthermore, in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group, the concentration of tacrolimus was significantly higher in women aged over 50 years than in women aged under 50 years (p < 0.05, effect size: d = 1.18). In contrast, ABCB1 genetic variations did not show any significant effect on the C/D value. Since the blood concentration of tacrolimus in patients with CYP3A5*3/*3 varies depending on sex and age, these factors should be considered when studying the difference of sex in CYP3A.
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