Background: Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) frequently occurs after liver transplantation (LT) because of lifelong administration of corticosteroids or immunosuppressants and often requires total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study examines patient characteristics and short-term outcomes of THA after LT. Methods: We observed 9 hips in 7 patients who underwent THA from August 2015 to December 2017 for ONFH after LT (group L). Cementless implants were inserted in all hips. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to reveal reasons for LT, type of donor, and period from LT to THA. Preoperative laboratory data, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, complication rates, and Harris Hip Score were compared with a control group of 27 cementless THAs in 27 patients with ONFH. Results: Causative diseases were liver cirrhosis (n = 4), type B fulminant hepatitis (n = 1), congenital biliary atresia (n = 1), and iatrogenic biliary tract injury (n = 1). Four livers were from living donors and 3 from cadavers. Mean time from LT to THA was 10.4 (1-20) years. Preoperative blood test showed a significant decrease in platelet count (178 vs 268 [∗103/μl]) and rise in total bilirubin (1.1 vs 0.7 [mg/dL]) in group L. There was no significant difference in operative time (86 vs 100 [minutes]), but intraoperative blood loss (303 vs 163 [mL]) increased significantly in group L. There were no significant differences in complication incidence or Harris Hip Score between the 2 groups. Conclusion: THA after LT requires caution because risks for bleeding increase. However, short-term outcomes appear to be equivalent to normal THA.
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