Purpose: To investigate the risk factors for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C (PVR-C), independent of prior surgical invasion. Methods: Patients who underwent surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were prospectively registered with the Japan-Retinal Detachment Registry, organized by the Japanese Retina and Vitreous Society, between February 2016 and March 2017. Data obtained from general ophthalmic examinations performed before and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery were analyzed. Results: We included 2013 eyes of 2013 patients (men, 1326 (65.9%); mean age, 55.2 ± 15.2 years) from amongst 3446 registered patients. Preoperative PVR-C was observed in 3.6% of patients. Propensity score matching revealed that a shorter axial length (AL) was a risk factor for preoperative PVR-C (OR (Odds Ratio), 0.81; 95%CI (Confidence Interval), 0.69 to 0.96; p = 0.015), which was a risk factor for surgical failure (OR, 4.22; 95%CI, 1.12 to 15.93; p = 0.034); the association was particularly significant for eyes with an AL < 25.0 mm (p = 0.016), while it was insignificant for eyes with an AL ≥ 25.0 mm. Conclusions: A shorter AL was related to the development of PVR-C before surgical invasion. Our results will help elucidate the fundamental pathogenesis of PVR and caution clinicians to meticulously examine eyes with a shorter AL to detect retinal detachment before PVR development.
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